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The quest to explore Colombia’s untouched jungle

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Colombia is on a mission to make sense of its rich biodiversity, isolated thanks to years of war. For researchers, it is a golden opportunity – and a breathtaking adventure.
You’ll find everything from the story about the world’s greatest space mission to the truth about whether our cats really love us, the epic hunt to bring illegal fishermen to justice and the small team which brings long-buried World War Two tanks back to life. What you won’t find is any reference to, well, you-know-what. Enjoy.

Is it possible to prevent ovarian cancer?

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There is no way to truly prevent ovarian cancer. One would think that removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries would prevent the disease but this is not always the case (primary peritoneal cancer can arise in the pelvis even after the ovaries have been removed). However, there are ways to significantly reduce your risk. If a woman takes birth control pills for more than 10 years, then her risk of ovarian cancer drops significantly. Tubal ligation has long been known to decrease the risk of ovarian cancer. Recently, removal of the entire tube has been shown to further decrease the risk.

How does one cope with ovarian cancer?

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A diagnosis of cancer is often accompanied by the emotional side effects of anxiety, fear, and depression. Just as treatments are designed to help fight cancer growth and spread, self-care and support measures to help one handle the emotional aspect of the diagnosis can be extremely valuable.
Many hospitals and cancer treatment centers offer cancer support groups and counseling services to help manage the trying emotional side effects of cancer and its treatment.

Chemotherapy (Chemo) Cancer

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This strong medication keeps cancer from spreading, makes it grow slower, or even kills cancer cells. It can cause side effects because it kills cells in your body that grow quickly, including those in your blood, mouth, digestive system, and hair follicles. There are over 100 types of chemo drugs. Your doctor will choose the one that’s best for your type of cancer. You may take it as a pill or capsule, rub it into your skin as a cream, or get it as an injection or IV at home or in the hospital.

Open Surgery Cancer

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Treating cancer with surgery works best if you have a solid tumor in one area. It often can’t treat cancer that has spread or cancer that’s in your blood, like leukemia. The surgeon makes a cut in your skin with a scalpel or other sharp tool and removes as much of the tumor as possible. They may also take out lymph nodes and other tissues for testing. This is called open surgery.

Minimally Invasive Surgery Cancer

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The goal for this procedure is the same as open surgery: to remove tumors, and also tissues and lymph nodes if needed. Instead of one large cut, the surgeon makes several small ones. They put a tube with a tiny camera into one cut to see inside your body, and tools into the others. This is called laparoscopic surgery. It usually has a shorter recovery time than open surgery.

Other Cancer Surgeries

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Cryosurgery uses very cold nitrogen or argon gas to freeze off abnormal tissue. It can treat some early skin cancers, retinoblastoma, and precancerous spots on your skin or cervix.
Photodynamic therapy is a laparoscopic surgery that puts drugs near tumors. Light activates the medicine, and it kills cancer cells.
Laser cancer surgery uses strong beams of light to cut into your skin. It’s good for very tiny areas.

Precision Medicine Cancer

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This new field, also called personalized medicine, uses your genetic makeup and other things to find out the best treatment for your cancer. In the “one-size-fits-all” model, your doctor chooses the option that works best on most cancers like yours. Precision medicine helps take some of the guesswork out of the selection process. It isn’t used widely for all forms of the disease. Many people who get it are part of clinical trials.

Targeted Therapies Cancer

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These are usually paired with other treatments. They’re strong medicine, like chemotherapy, but instead of killing all fast-growing cells, they home in on the parts of cancer cells that make them different from other cells. Targeted drugs do things like stop blood vessels from growing around cancer cells or turn off signals that tell cancer cells to grow. They can also tell your immune system to destroy them or change their proteins so they die.

Hormone Therapy Cancer

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Also called endocrine therapy, it targets cancers that use hormones to grow. There are two kinds of this therapy: one that stops you from making hormones, and one that keep hormones from working the way they should. You can either take them as pills or get them through a shot. Sometimes you may get surgery to remove an organ that makes hormones, like ovaries or testicles. Doctors use hormone therapy with other methods to shrink tumors before surgery or treatment, or to kill cancer cells that have spread to other parts of your body. It can also lower the chances that your cancer will return.

Gene Therapy Cancer

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This treatment uses a special carrier, usually a virus, to put RNA or DNA into your living cells. Your doctor will either remove some of your cells and put the genetic materials into them in a lab or give you the carrier directly. The changed cells then either kill cancer cells, slow their growth, or help healthy cells fight cancer better. Doctors don’t use this method widely yet, but several types of gene therapies are available for certain diseases.

Immunotherapy Cancer

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This type of biological therapy, or biotherapy, uses your immune system to fight the cancer. It either boosts your immune system or marks cancer cells so your immune system can find and destroy them more easily. You get it by mouth as a pill, into a vein as an IV, by rubbing a cream into your skin, or through a catheter directly into your bladder.

Types of Immunotherapy Cancer

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Immune checkpoint inhibitors are drugs that take the brakes off your immune system to help it find and attack cancer cells.Cancer vaccines start an immune response against cancer cells so your body can better attack them. They can also prevent certain cancers.Monoclonal antibodies are drugs made in a lab to work like your natural antibodies. They mark cancer cells as the ones your immune system should attack. They can also help chemotherapy and radiation go directly to cancer cells.

Cancer Treatment Types

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Cancer Treatment Types
Chemotherapy (Chemo)
This strong medication keeps cancer from spreading, makes it grow slower, or even kills cancer cells. It can cause side effects because it kills cells in your body that grow quickly, including those in your blood, mouth, digestive system, and hair follicles. There are over 100 types of chemo drugs. Your doctor will choose the one that’s best for your type of cancer.

Breast Cancer - What Is Breast Cancer Screening?

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Breast cancer screeningexternal icon means checking a woman’s breasts for cancer before there are signs or symptoms of the disease. The Breast Cancer Screening Chart pdf icon[PDF-180KB] compares recommendations from several leading organizations. All women need to be informed by their health care provider about the best screening options for them.

Colorectal (Colon) Cancer

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Colorectal cancer almost always develops from precancerous polyps (abnormal growths) in the colon or rectum. Screening tests can find precancerous polyps, so they can be removed before they turn into cancer. Screening tests also can find colorectal cancer early, when treatment works best.
What Is Colorectal Cancer Screening?
A screening test is used to look for a disease when a person doesn’t have symptoms.

Lung Cancer

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The USPSTF recommends yearly lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for people who have a history of heavy smoking, and smoke now or have quit within the past 15 years, and are between 55 and 80 years old.
Who Should Be Screened for Lung Cancer?
Screeningexternal icon means testing for a disease when there are no symptoms or history of that disease.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

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Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine
Some cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), a very common sexually transmitted infection. The HPV vaccine protects against the types of HPV that most often cause these cancers.
  • HPV vaccination is recommended for preteens aged 11 to 12 years, but can be given starting at age 9.
  • HPV vaccine also is recommended for everyone through age 26 years, if they are not vaccinated already.
  • HPV vaccination is not recommended for everyone older than age 26 years.

Cancer and Flu What Cancer Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu

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What Cancer Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu
Everyone 6 months of age and older should get a flu vaccine every season.
Flu vaccination is especially important for people with cancer or a history of cancer because they are at high risk of developing serious flu complications.
Are Cancer Patients and Survivors More Likely to Get the Flu Than Others?
We don’t know this specifically.

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

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  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • About abdominal aortic aneurysms
  • Symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Causes of an abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Diagnosing an abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Treating an abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Preventing an abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • About abdominal aortic aneurysms
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a swelling (aneurysm) of the aorta – the main blood vessel that leads away from the heart, down through the abdomen to the rest of the body.
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